Archive: April 26th, 2007

And So It Begins.

[Research] (04.26.07, 11:53 pm)

Well, for those of you who have been following the exciting progress, I posted my current reading lists for my research. It’s all very exciting and hopefully things will come together soon. I hope to use this space to post notes on readings, which may be helpful for not just myself but for anyone who is interested in this sort of thing. We shall see how things turn out.


Reading Lists

[Research] (04.26.07, 11:47 pm)

Research Plan:
The general goal of this research is to investigate the simulation of social agents. The goal in this simulation is to create a sort of microworld inhabited by virtual characters whose behavior is in between the complexity of the Sims and Facade. From the perspective of artifacts, this is important because Facade’s complexity makes it difficult to author multiple characters and scenarios. The complexity of the Sims does not account for deeper social behavior, most all of the work is done on an interpretive level. Furthermore, a category of social simulations opens an entire potential genre of games that has been nearly untouched. This category could address themed social environments based on settings defined in existing literature, though social simulation is by no means limited to that. Many settings taken from literary context have strongly defined genre archetypes and these can be used to author schemas that define the structure of character behavior. By placing players in such an environment and giving them thematically relevant verbs for engaging with this world, it would be possible to create a revolutionary new genre of games.

Celia Pearce
Ian Bogost
Janet Murray

This reading list is not yet organized and polished. It contains all of the sources I plan on using for this research, but the organization is loose, and the labelling is somewhat inconsistent. These discrepancies will be fixed over time, and you may investigate this page to keep up to date.

Simulated characters,
representation of setting, behaviors
characters in games

Themes, characters in literary frame
psychological representation of behavior
performative representation of behavior
context of games, who plays them, why

Setting ideas: Catullus’s Rome, Regency Romantic Novel, Roaring Twenties.
Focus on Events, contextualize with settings

Media Theory and Related Theoretical Contexts

  1. Chandler, Daniel. Semiotics: The Basics. London: Routledge, 2001.
  2. Evans, Jessica and Stuart Hall. Visual Culture: The Reader. London: Sage Publicatons, 1999.
  3. Montfort, Nick and Noah Waldrip-Fruin. The New Media Reader. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2003.
  4. Barthes, Roland. Mythologies (selections from this and other works). New York: Noonday Press, 1973.
  5. Baudrillard, Jean. Simulations. New York: Semiotext, 1983.
  6. Baudrillard, Jean. System of Objects. New York: Verso, 1993.
  7. Bowker, G and S.L. Star. Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Consequences. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999.
  8. Deluze, Giles and Felix Guattari. A Thousand Plateaus. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 1987.
  9. Butler, Judith. Bodies That Matter. New York: Routledge, 1993.
  10. Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish. New York: Pantheon, 1977.
  11. Foucault, Michel. Archeology of Knowledge. New York: Pantheon, 1972.
  12. Goffman, Erving. Interaction Ritual. New York: Anchor Books, 1967.
  13. Goffman, Erving. Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. New York: Anchor Books, 1959.
  14. McLuhan, Marshall. Understanding Media. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995.
  15. Shannon, Claude and Warren Weaver. Information Theory. Illinois: University of Illinois, 1963.
  16. Turner, Victor. The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure. Chicago: Aldrine, 1966.
  17. Geertz, Clifford. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books, 1973.
  18. Marx, Karl. Engels, Friedrich. 1944 Manuscripts.
  19. Engels, Friedrich. Origin of Family, Property, and State.
  20. Adam, Alison. Artificial Knowing and the Gender Machine. London: Routledge, 1998.
  21. Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution, Rheingold
  22. Weizenbaum, Joseph. Computer Power and Human reason. New York: Freeman, 1976.
  23. De Saussure, Ferdinand. Course in general Linguistics. London: Duckworth, 1974.
  24. Jakobson R., Halle M., Fundamentals of Language, 1956 (or) Jakobson R., The Framework of Language, 1980
  25. Ortony, Andrew. Metaphor and Thought. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
  26. Vygotsky, Lev. Thought and Language. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1986
  27. Aristotle. Aristotle’s Poetics. New York: Hill and Wang, 1989.
  28. Genette, Gerard. Narrative Discourse: An Essay in Method. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983.
  29. Jenkins, Henry. Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture. London: Routledge, 1992.
  30. McCloud, Scott. Understanding Comics. New York: Perrennial, 1984.
  31. Mitchell, W.T.J. On Narrative. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981
  32. Martin, Wallace. Recent Theories of Narrative. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986.
  33. Prince, Gerald. A Dictionary of Narratology. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1987.
  34. Propp, Vladimir. Morphology of the Folktale. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1968.
  35. Radway, Janice. Reading the Romance: Women, Patriarchy, and Popular Literature. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.
  36. Ryan, Marie-Laure. Possible Words: Artificial Intelligence and Narrative Theory. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.
  37. Watt, Ian. The Rise of the Novel. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1957.
  38. Adorno, Theodor and Max Horkheimer. The Dialectic of Enlightenment. London: Continuum, 1976.
  39. Eagleton, Terry. The Ideology of the Aesthetic.
  40. Wittgenstein, Ludwig. Philosophical Investigations. New York: MacMillan, 1958.
  41. Bukatman, Scott. Terminal Identity: The Virtual Subject in Postmodern Science Fiction. Durham: Duke University Press, 1993.
  42. Lyotard, Jean-Francois. The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1979.
  43. Jameson, Fredric. Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. Durham: Duke University Press, 1995.
  44. Nietzsche, Fredrich. The Birth of Tragedy.
  45. Nietzsche, Fredrich. On Truth and Lying in an Extramoral Sense.
  46. Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1999.
  47. Diamond, Jared. Collapse.
  48. Levy, Pierce. Collective Intelligence: Mankind’s Emerging World of Cyberspace. Perseus Book Group, 2000.
  49. Cartwright, Lisa and Maria Sturken. Practices of Looking: An Introduction to Visual Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
  50. Stafford, Barbara. Visual Analog: Consciousness as the Art of Connecting. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2001.

Media Traditions

  1. Alexander, Christopher. The Timeless Way of Building. New York: Oxford University Presss, 1979.
  2. Alexander, Christopher, Sara Ishikawa, and Murray Silverstein. A Pattern Language: Towns, Building, Construction. New York: Oxford University Presss, 1977.
  3. Lynch, Kevin. The Image of the City. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1960.
  4. Oldenburg, Ray. The Great Good Place: Cafes, Coffee Shops, Bookstores, Bars, Hair Salons, and Other Hangouts at the Heart of a Community. New York: Marlowe & Company, 1999.
  5. Whyte, William Hollingsworth. The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces. Washington, D.C.: Conservation Foundation, 1980.
  6. Butler, Octavia. Xenogenesis. New York: Warner Books, 1987.
  7. Gibson, William. Neuromancer New York: Ace Books, 1994.
  8. Stephenson, Neil. The Diamond Age. New York: Bantam, 2000.
  9. Sartre, Jean-Paul. No Exit.
  10. Camus, Albert. The Stranger.
  11. Shakespeare, William. The Tempest. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1875.
  12. Shakespeare, William. Much Ado About Nothing.
  13. Gone With the Wind.
  14. Stoppard, Tom. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead. New York: Grove Press, 1968.
  15. Catullus. Collected Poetry.
  16. Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice.
  17. Choderlos de Laclos, Pierre. Les Liaisons Dangereuses.
  18. Groundhog Day. Harold Ramis and Danny Rubin. Columbia Pictures, 1993.
  19. Run Lola Run. Tom Tykwer. Sony Pictures, 1998.
  20. Short Cuts. Robert Altman and Frank Barhydt. New Line Cinema, 1993.
  21. Altman, Rick. Film/Genre. London: BFI Publishing, 1999.
  22. Bordwell, David. Narration in the Fiction Film. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985.
  23. Bordwell, David and Kristen Thompson. Film Art: An Introduction. New York: Knopf, 1986.
  24. Kolker, Robert. A Cinema of Lonliness: Penn Kubrick, Scorsese, Spielberg, Altman. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
  25. Mulvey, Laura. Visual and Other Pleasures. Hampshire: Macmillan, 1989.
  26. Bolter, J. David. Writing Space: the Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing. Hillsdale: L. Erlbaum Associates, 1991.
  27. Campbell, Joseph. The Hero With a Thousand Faces. 1949.
  28. Bringhurst, Robert and Warren Chappell. A Short History of the Printed Word. New York: Knopf, 1970.
  29. Eisenstein, Elizabeth. The Printing Press as an Agent of Change: Communications and Cultural Transformations in early modern Europe. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979.
  30. Gaur, Albertine. A History of Writing. London: British Library, 1992.
  31. Goody, Jack. Representations and Contradictions: Ambivalence towards Images, Theatre, Fiction, Relics and Sexuality. Oxford; Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers, 1997.
  32. Lord, A.B.. Singer of Tales. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000.
  33. Sampson, Geoffrey. Writing Systems: A Linguistic Introduction. London: Hutchinson, 1985.
  34. Polti, Georges. Thirty-Six Dramatic Situations.
  35. Jameson, Fredric. Archaeologies of the Future: The Desire Called Utopia and Other Science Fictions. London & New York: Verso.
  36. Huxley, Aldous. Brave New World (1932)
  37. Skinner, BF. Walden Two.
  38. Kumar, K. Utopia and Anti-utopia in Modern Times. 1987
  39. Bellamy, Edward. Looking Backward 2000-1887.
  40. Bois, Yve Alain and Rosalind Krauss. Formless: A User’s Guide. Paris: Centre Georges Pompidou, 1996.
  41. Foster, Hal. The Return of the Real: the Avant-Garde at the End of the Century. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1996.
  42. Auslander, Philip. From Acting to Performance: Essays in Modernism and Postmodernism. London; New York: Routledge, 1997.
  43. Caillois, Roger. Man, Play, and Games. New York: Free Press of Glencoe, 1961
  44. Huizinga, Johan. Homo Ludens; a Study of the Play-Element in Culture. London: Routledge, 1980.
  45. Sutton-Smith, Brian. The Ambiguity of Play. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997.
  46. Winnicott, D.W.. Playing and Reality. London: Travistock Publications, 1971
  47. Allen, Robert. Channels of Discourse, Reassembled: Television and Contemporary Criticism. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992.
  48. Postman, Neil. Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business. New York: Viking, 1985.
  49. Williams, Raymond. Television: Technology and Cultural Form. New York: Schocken Books, 1975.
  50. Svendsen, Lars. A Philosophy of Boredom.

Digital Media Forms and Technologies

  1. Arseth, Espen. Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic Literature. Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.
  2. Brown, John Seely and Paul Duguid. The Social Life of Information. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2000.
  3. Cassell, Justine and Henry Jenkins. From Barbie to Mortal Combat. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1998.
  4. Laurel, Brenda. Computers as Theater. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 1993.
  5. Lebling, P. David. “Zork: A Computerized Fantasy Simulation Game.” IEEE Computer. 12 Apr-79 <http://mud.co.uk/richard/zork.html>
  6. Manovich, Lev. The Language of New Media. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2001.
  7. Norman, Donald. The Psychology of Everyday Things. New York: Basic Books, 1988.
  8. Norman, Donald. The Invisible Computer: Why Good Products can Fail, the Personal Computer is so Complex, and Information Appliances are the Solution. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1998. (NOTE: “Being Analog”)
  9. Papert, Seymour. Mindstorms: Children, Computers, and Powerful Ideas. New York: Basic Books, 1999.
  10. Starr, Paul. “Seductions of Sim: Policy as a Simulation Game.” The American Prospect. 17 Spring, 1994. 19-29 <http://www.prospect.org/print/V5/17/starr-p.html>
  11. Turing, Alan. Computing Machinery and Intelligence. 1950
  12. Turkle, Sherry. The Second Self: Computers and the Human Spirit. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984.
  13. Turkle, Sherry. Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995.
  14. Druckery, Timothy. Ars Electronica: Facing the Future. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999.
  15. Moser, Mary Anne. Immersed in Technology: Art and Virtual Environments. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1996.
  16. Wilson, Stephen. Information Arts: Intersections of Art, Science and Technology. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2002.
  17. Ryan, Marie-Laure. Possible Words: Artificial Intelligence and Narrative Theory. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.
  18. Mateas, Michael. Terminal Time. 2000.
  19. Mateas, Michael. Dissertation, CMU CS 2002
  20. Mateas, Michael and Andrew Stern. Fa├žade. 2002.
  21. Crawford, Chris. Erasmatron.
  22. Bates, Joseph et al. Oz Group. CMU.
  23. Conway, James. Game of Life. 1995.
  24. Prophet, Jane and Gordon Shelly. TechnoSphere. 1995.
  25. Wright, Will. The Sims. 2000. Sims 2, expansion packs
  26. Sim City
  27. Sid Meier’s Civilization
  28. Stern, Andrew. Dogz, Catz, Babyz.
  29. Weizenbaum, Joseph. Eliza. 1966.
  30. Animal Crossing: Nintendo
  31. Jenkins, Henry; Weise, Matthew; others (?). Revolution! (Neverwinter Mod)
  32. Joyce, Michael. afternoon. Eastgate Systems, 1985.
  33. Bruckman, Amy. works.
  34. Foner, Lenny. Entertaining Agents. 1997.
  35. Morningstar, C. and R. Farmer. “The Lessons of Lucasfilm’s Habitat”. Benedikt. 1992.
  36. Narrative Intelligence, Mateas/Sengers
  37. Pause & Effect, Meadows
  38. Play Between Worlds, Taylor
  39. Shared Fantasy, Fine
  40. Synthetic Worlds, Castronova
  41. Story and Discourse, Chatman
  42. Story Logic, Herman
  43. Murray, Janet. Hamlet on the Holodeck.
  44. Bogost, Ian. Unit Operations
  45. Juul, Jesper. Half Real
  46. Turner, Scott. The Creative Process
  47. Wardrip-Fruin, Noah; Harrigan, Pat. First Person (collection)
  48. Wardrip-Fruin, Noah; Harrigan, Pat. Second Person (collection)
  49. Wolf, Mark. The Video Game Theory Reader (Collection)
  50. Montfort, Nick. Twisty Little Passages: An Approach to Interactive Fiction.


  1. Wolfram, Stephen. “Cellular Automata as Models of Complexity,” Nature 311 (October 1984), 419
  2. Wolfram, Stephen. “A New Kind of Science” (Champaign, Ill.: Wolfram Media, 2002)
  3. Friedman. Ted. “Semiotics of Sim City,” First Monday, 4 (April 1999) <http://www.firstmonday.dk/issues/issue4_4/friedman/>
  4. Pearce (? referenced from Unit Operations), “Sims, Battle Bots, Cellular Automata, God, and Go.”
  5. Frasca, Gonzalo. “Simulation 101: Simulation versus Representation,” <http://www.ludology.org/articles/sim1/simulation101.html>
  6. Frasca, Gonzalo. “Simulation versus Narrative: Introduction to Ludology,” in Game Theory Reader
  7. Turkle, Sherry. “Seeing through Computers,” American Prospect 8, no 31 (March 1997)
  8. Clarke, Andy. Being There
  9. Chris Crawford on Interactive Storytelling
  10. Chris Crawford on Game Design
  11. Brooks, Rodney. “Intelligence Without Reason”
  12. Ortony, A. (1991). Value and emotion. In W. Kessen, A. Ortony, & F. Craik (Eds.) Memories, thoughts, and emotions: Essays in honor of George Mandler. Hillsdale, NJ : Erlbaum.
  13. Ortony, A. (2003). On making believable emotional agents believable. In R. Trappl, P. Petta & S. Payr (Eds.), Emotions in humans and artifacts. Cambridge, MA.: MIT Press.
  14. Ortony, Andrew; Clore, Gerald; Collins, Allan. The Cognitive Structure of Emotion.
  15. Johnstone, Keith. Impro: Visualization and the Theatre.
  16. Fussell, Paul. Class: A Guide Through the American Status System.
  17. Jackson, Steve. GURPS Basic Set (3rd Edition). [character building]
  18. Chomsky, Noam. Topics in the Theory of Generative Grammar. 1966.
  19. Ball, Phillip. The Self-Made Tapestry: Pattern Formation in Nature. 2001.
  20. Dice Games Properly Explained, Knizia
  21. Dungeons and Dreamers, King/Borland
  22. Finite and Infinite Games, Carse
  23. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience, Csikszentmihalyi
  24. Fundamentals of Game Design, Adams/Rollings
  25. The Games We Played: The Golden Age of Board and Table Games, Hofer
  26. Gender Inclusive Game Design, Ray
  27. Jakob von Uexkull. A Stroll through the Worlds of Animals and Men: A Picture Book of Invisible Worlds. 1934.
  28. Maslow, Abraham: A theory of Human Motivation. 1943.
  29. Bassnett, Susan. Translation Studies
  30. Venuti, Lawrence. The Translation Studies Reader
  31. Pearl, Judea. Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems: Networks of Plausible Inference.
  32. Davenport, Glorianna. “Desire vs. Destiny: the question of payoff in narrative”
  33. Sims, Karl. “Evolving Virtual Creatures” 1994.
  34. Freud, Sigmund. Interpretation of Dreams
  35. Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and Its Discontents (Das Unbehagen in der Kultur, 1930)
  36. Jung, Carl. Man and His Symbols.
  37. Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex. 1949.
  38. Sartre, Jean-Paul. Existentialism and Human Emotions. 1957.
  39. Sartre, Jean-Paul. Being and Nothingness. 1943.
  40. Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. Phenomenology of Perception (or, alternately) The Structure of Behavior.
  41. Jaspers, Karl. Philosophy of Existence. 1971.
  42. Lukacs, Georg. “Reification and the Consciousness of the Proletariat”. 1971.
  43. Churchland, Paul. The Engine of Reason, The Seat of the Soul: A Philosophical Journey into the Brain. 1996.
  44. Sun, Ron. Cognition and Multi-Agent Interaction: From Cognitive Modelling to Social Simulation. 2005.
  45. Gluck, Kevin A.; Pew, Richard W. Modelling Human Behavior With Integrated Cognitive Architectures: Comparison, Evaluation. 2005.
  46. Epstein, Joshua. Generative Social Science: Studies in Agent-Based Computational Modelling
  47. Wasserman, Stanley; Faust, Katherine; Iacobucci, Dawn. Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications
  48. Resnik, Mitchel. Turtles, Termites, and Traffic Jams: Explorations in Massively Parallel Microworlds
  49. Miller, John; Page, Scott. Complex Adaptive Systems: An Introduction to Computational Models of Social Life.
  50. Epstein, Joshua; Axtell, Robert. Growing Artificial Societies: Social Science from the Bottom Up.

Other Potentially Useful:

Papers @ http://www.ict.usc.edu/
Marsella, Stacy <- emotional agents etc
CYC project – GOFAI symbolic database
Muramatsu & Ackerman CSCW papers (Computer Supported Cooperative Work)
Nancy Nercessian: http://www.cc.gatech.edu/aimosaic/faculty/nersessian/ (philosophy, computing)
http://www.ou.edu/deptcomm/dodjcc/groups/06C/References.htm ?